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ANTHROPOMETRIC STANDRADS

ANTHROPOMETRIC STANDRADS

Man’s Dimensional Relationships

            The calculations for a man’s body were based on the lengths of heads, faces or feet. These were then subdivided and brought into relationship with each other, so that they were applicable throughout general life. Even within our own lifetimes, feet and ells have been in common use as measurements.

            ½ h = the whole of the top half of the body, from the crotch upwards.
            ¼ h = leg length from the ankle to the knee and from the chin to the navel
            1/6 h = length of foot
            1/8 h = head length from the hair parting to the bottom of the chin, distance             between the nipples
            1/10 h = face height and width (including the ears), hand length to the
             wrist
            1/12 h = face width at the level of the bottom of the nose, leg width (above the             ankle) and so on.
            The sub-divisions go up to 1/40 h.

            During the last century, A. Zeising, brought greater clarity with his investigations of the dimensional relationship of man’s proportions. He made exact measurements and comparisons on the basis of the golden section.


MAN DIMENSION AND SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Body measurements [In accordance with normal measurements and energy consumption]

 

Space Requirements

           
MAN SMALL SPACES
Dimensions for Railway Carriages

MAN AND HIS HOUSING



         The function of housing is to project man against the weather and to provide an environment that maintains his well-being. The required inside atmosphere comprises gently moving (i.e. nor draughty), well oxygenated air, pleasant warmth and air humidity and sufficient light. To provide these conditions, important factors are the location and orientation of the housing in the landscape as well as the arrangement of spaces in the house and its type of construction. The prime requirements for promoting a lasting feeling of well-being are an insulated construction, with appropriately sized windows placed correctly in relation to the room furnishings, sufficient heating and corresponding draught-free ventilation.

The need for air

         Man breathes in oxygen with the air and expels carbon dioxide and water vapour when he exhales. These rays in quantity depending on the individual’s weight, food intake, activity and surrounding environment.

         It has been calculated that o average human beings produce 0.020m3/h of carbon dioxide and 40 g/h of water vapour.
         A carbon dioxide content between1 and 3 % can stimulate deeper breathing, so the air in the dwelling should not, as far as possible, contain more than 1 %. This means, with a single change of air per hour, a requirement for an air space of 32 m3 per adult and 15 m3 for each child. However, because the natural rate of air exchange in free-standing buildings, even with closed windows, reaches 1½ to 2 times this amount, 16 – 24 m3 is sufficient (depending on the design) as a normal air space for adults and 8 – 12 m3 for children. Expressed another way with a room height ≥ 2.5 m, a room floor area of 6.4 – 9.6 m2 for each adult is adequate and 3.2 – 4.8 m2 for each child. With a greater rate of air exchange, e.g. sleeping with a window open, or ventilation via ducting), the volume of space per person for living rooms can be reduced to 7.5 m3 and for bedrooms to 10 m3 per bed.

Where air quality is likely to deteriorate because of naked lights, vapours and other pollutants (as in hospitals or factories) and in enclosed spaces (such as you in an auditorium), rate of exchange of air must be artificially boosted in order to provide the lacking oxygen and remove the harmful substances.

Space Heating

         The room temperature for humans at rest is at its most pleasant between 180 and 200C, and for work between 150 and 180C, depending on the level of activity. A human being produces about 1.5 kcal/h per kg of body weight. An adult weighing 70 kg therefore generates 2520 kcal of heat energy per day, although the quantity produced varies according to the circumstances. For instance it increases with a drop in room temperature just as it does with exercise.
         When heating a room, care must be taken to ensure that low temperature heat is used to warm the room air on the cold sie of the room. With surface temperatures above 70 - 800C decomposition can take place, which may irritate the mucous membrane, mouth and pharynx and make the air feel to dry. Because of this, steam heating and iron stoves, with their high surface temperatures, are not suitable for use in blocks of flats.

Room Humidity

         Room air is most pleasant with a relative air humidity of 50 – 60 %; it should be maintained between limits 40 %and 70 %.room air which is too moist promotes germs, mould, cold bridging, rot and condensation (Fig. 6). The production of water vapour in human beings varies in accordance with the prevailing conditions and performs an important cooling function. Production increases with rising warmth of the room, particularly when the temperature goes above 370C (blood temperature).


4. Harmful accumulation of Industrial gases

 

Tolerable for Several Hours (%)

Tolerable for upto 1 h (%)

Immediately dangerous (%)

Temperature (0C)

Water content (g/m3)

Iodine Vapour

0.0005

0.003

0.05

50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Maximum water content of one cubic metre of air (g)

 

82.63
78.86
75.22
71.73
68.36
65.14
62.05
59.09
56.25
53.52
50.91
48.40
46.00
43.71
41.51
39.41
37.40
35.48
33.64
31.89
30.21
28.62
27.09
25.64
24.24
22.93
21.68
20.48
19.33
18.25
17.22
16.25
15.31
14.43
13.59
12.82
12.03
11.32
10.64
10.01
9.39
8.82
8.28
7.76
7.28
6.82
6.39
5.98
5.60
5.23
4.89
4.55
4.22
3.92
3.64
3.37
3.13
2.90
2.69
2.49
2.31
2.14
1.98
1.83
1.70
1.58
1.46
1.35
1.25
1.15
1.05
0.95
0.86
0.78
0.71
0.64

Chlorine Vapour

0.001

0.004

0.05

Bromine Vapour

0.001

0.004

0.05

Hydrochloric Acid

0.01

0.05

1.5

Sulphuric Acid

-

0.05

0.5

Hydrogen Sulphide

-

0.2

0.6

Ammonia

0.1

0.3

3.5

Carbon Monoxide

0.2

0.5

2.0

Carbon Disulphide

-

1.5*

10.0*

Carbon dioxide

10

80

300

* mg per litre

5. Human expenditure of energy

Activity

Energy Expenditure (kJ/h)

At rest in bed (basal metabolic rate)

250

Sitting and writing

475

Dressing, washing, shaving

885

Walking at5km/h

2050

Climbing 5 cm stairs

2590

Running at 8 km/h

3550

Rowing at 33 strokes/min

4765

 

 

6. Room humidity

 


 

1. Factors that affect thermal comfort
Physical conditions

Air movement (draughts)
Relative humidity
Ambient surface temperature
Air temperature
Atmospheric charge
Air composition and pressure
Room occupancy
Optical/acoustic influences
Clothing

Physiological conditions

Sex
Age
Ethnic influences
Food intake
Level of activity
Adaptation and acclimatization
Natural body rhythms
State of health
Psycho sociological factors


1. Heated walls 2. Heated walls

3. Field of comfort 4. Field of comfort

5. Field of comfort 6. Human heat flows


7. Field of comfort 8. Field of comfort

9. Humidity values for air we breathe


Water content of the air (g/kg)

Suitability for breathing

Sensation

0 – 5

Very good

Light, fresh

5 – 8

Good

Normal

8 – 10

Satisfactory

Still bearable

10 – 25

Increasingly bad

Heavy, muggy

Over 25

Becoming dangerous

Very humid

41

Water content of the air breathed out270C (100 %)

 

Over 41

Water condensesin pulmonary alveoli

 


10. Comparative relative humidity values


Absolute water content (g/kg)

Relative
humidity (%)

Temperature
(0C)

Description

2

50

0

Fine winter’s day healthy climate for lungs

5

100

4

Fine autumnal day

5

40

18

Very good room climate

8

50

21

Good room climate

10

70

20

Room climate too humid

28

100

30

Tropical rain forest

Temperature regulation and heat loss from the body

         The human body can raise or lower the rate at which it loses heat using several mechanisms: increasing blood circulation in the skin, increasing the blood circulation speed, vascular dilation and secreting sweat. When cold, the body uses muscular shivering to generate additional heat.

         Heat is lost from the body in three main ways: conduction, convection and radiation. Conduction is the process of heat transfer from one surface when they are in contact (e.g feet in contact with the floor). The rate of heat transfer depends on the surface area in contact, the temperature differential and the thermal conductivities of the materials involved. Copper, for example, has a high thermal conductivity while that of air is low making it a porous insulating material. Convection is the process of body heat being lost as the skin warms the surrounding air. This process is governed by the velocity of the circulating air in the room and the temperature differential between the clothed and unclothed areas of the body. Air circulation is also driven by convection: air warms itself by contact with hot objects (e.g. radiators), rises, cools off on the ceiling and sinks again. As it circulates the air carries dust and floating particles with it. The quicker the heating medium flows (e.g. water in a radiator), the quicker is the development of circulation. All objects, including the human body, emit heat radiation in accordance to temperature difference between the body surface and that of the ambient area. It is proportional to the power of 4 of the body’s absolute temperature and therefore 16 times as high if the temperature doubles. The wavelength of the radiation also changes with temperature: the higher the surface temperature, the shorter the wavelength. Above 5000C, heat becomes visible as light. The radiation below this limit is called infra-red/heart radiation. It radiates in all directions, penetrates the air without heating it, and is absorbed by (or reflected off) other solid bodies are warmed. This radiant heat absorption by the body (e.g. from tile stoves) is the most pleasant sensation for humans for physiological reasons and also the most healthy.

         Other heat exchange mechanisms used by the human body are evaporation of moisture from the sweat glands and breathing. The body surface and vapour pressure differential between the skin and surrounding areas are key factors here.
Recommendations for Internal climate

An air temperature 20-240C is comfortable both in summer and in winter. The surrounding surface areas should be differ by more than 2-30C from the air temperature. A change in the air temperature can be compensated for by changing the surface temperature (e.g. with decreasing air temperature, increases the surface temperature). If there is too great a difference between the air and surface temperatures, excessive movement of air takes place. The main critical surfaces are those of the windows.
         For comfort, heat conduction to the floor via the feet must be avoided (i.e. the floor temperature should be 170C or more). The surface temperature of the ceiling depends upon the height of the room. The temperature sensed by humans is somewhere near the average between room air temperature and that of surrounding surfaces.

It is important to control air movement and humidity as far as possible. The movement can be sensed as draughts and this has the effect of local cooling of the body. A relative air humidity of 40 – 50 % is comfortable. With a lower humidity (e.g. 30 %) dust particles are liable to fly around.
         To maintain the quality of the air, controlled ventilation is ideal. The CO2 content of the air must be replaced by oxygen. A CO2 content of 0.10 % by volume should not be exceeded, and therefore in living rooms and bedrooms provide for two to three air changes per hour. The fresh air requirement of humans comes to about 32.0 m3/h so the air change in living rooms should be 0.4 – 0.8 times the room volume per person/h.

THE EYE: PERCEPTION

  1. Black areas and objects appear smaller than those of the same size which are white: the same applies to parts of buildings

  1. To make black and white areas look equal in size, the latter must be drawn smaller

  1. These vertical rules are actually parallel but appear to converge because of the oblique hatching

  1. Lengths a and b are equal as are A-F and F-D, but arrowheads and dissimilar surrounds make them appear different

  1. Although both are equal in diameter, circle a looks larger when surrounded by circles that have a smaller relative size

  1. Two identical people seem different in height if rules of perspective are not observed


  1. The colour and pattern of clothing can change peoples appearance (a) thinner in black (black absorbs light); (b) more portly in white (white spreads light); (c) taller in vertical stripes; (d) broader in horizontal stripes; (e) taller and broader in checked patterns

  1. Dynamic effect

  1. Static effect

  1. Vertical dimensions appear disproportionately more impressive to the eye than horizontal ones of the same size

11 – 14. The perception of scale is changed by the ratio of the window area to the remaining area of wall as well as by architectural articulation (i.e. vertical, horizontal or mixed – 10; glazing bars can contribute substantially to this

15 – 17. The positioning of windows, doors and furnishings can give a room different spatial appearances: 15. long and narrow; 16. Seems shorter with the bed across the rooms, or the table below the window; 17. With windows opposite the door and appropriate furniture, the room seems more wide than deep

18. A structure can appear taller if viewed from above; there is a greater feeling of certainty when looking up

19. The walls slanting suitably inward seem vertical; steps, cornices and friezes when bowed correctly upwards look horizontal


Interpretation

            The activity of the eye is divided into seeing and observing. Seeing first of all serves our physical safety but observing takes over where seeing finishes; it leads to enjoyment of the ‘pictures’ registered through seeing. One can differentiate between a still and a scanned picture by the way that the eye stays on an object or scans along it. The still picture is displayed in a segment of the area of a circle, whose diameter is the same as the distance of the eye from the object. Inside this field of view the objects appear to the eye ‘at a glance’ Fig. 3. The ideal still picture is displayed in balance. Balance is the first characteristic of architectural sense – the sense of balance or static sense – that underpins the sense of beauty we feel with regard to symmetrical, harmonious things and proportions or when we are faced with elements that are in balance.

            Outside this framework, the eye receives its impressions by scanning the picture. The scanning eye works forward along the obstacles of resistance which it meets as it directs itself away from us in width or depth. Obstacles of the same or recurring distances are detected by the eye as a ‘beat’ or a ‘rhythm’, which has the same appeal as the sounds received by the ear from music. ‘Architecture is Frozen Music. This effect occurs even when regarding a still or scanned picture of an enclosed area Fig. 1 and 2.

            A room whose top demarcation (the ceiling) we recognize in the still picture gives a feeling of security, but on the other hand in long rooms it gives a feeling of depression. With a high ceiling, which the eye can only recognize at first by scanning, the room appears free and sublime, provided that the distance between the walls, and hence the general proportions, are in harmony. Designers must be careful with this because the eye is susceptible to optical illusions


  1. The perception of a low room is gained ‘at a glance (i.e. still picture)

  1. In higher rooms, the eyes must scan upwards (i.e. scan picture)

  1. The human filed of vision (head still, moving the eyes only) is 540 horizontally, 270 upwards and 100 downwards

  1. The filed of view of the normal fixed eye takes in a perimeter of 10 (approx. the areas of a thumbnail of an outstretched hand)

  1. The eye can resolve detail within a perimeter of only 0’1’ (the field of reading), thus limiting the distances at which objects and shapes can be distinguished accurately – 6.

  1. To be readable at a distance of say 700 m the width w of the letters must be: > 7—x 0.000291 = 0.204; height h is usually 5 w; 5 x 0.204 = 1.020 m

  1. As in the previous examples, the size of structural parts which are differentiable can be calculated using the viewing distance and trigonometry

  1. Street widths play an important role in the level of detail which is perceived from ground level

  1. Parts of buildings meant to be seen but sited above projections must be placed sufficiently high up.

MAN AND COLOUR

           Colours have a power over humans. They can create feelings of well-being, unease, activity or passivity, for instance. Colouring in factories, offices or schools can enhance or reduce performance; in hospitals it can have appositive influence on patients’ health. This influence works indirectly through making rooms appear wider or narrower, thereby giving an impression of space, which promotes a feeling of restriction or freedom Fig. 5 to 7. It also works directly through the physical reactions or impulses evoked by the individual colours Fig. 2 and 3. The strongest impulse effect comes from orange; then follow yellow, red, green, and purple. The weakest impulse effect comes from blue, greenly blue and violet (i.e. cold and passive colours).

           Strong impulse colours are suitable only for small areas in a room. Conversely, low impulse colours can be used for large areas. Warm colours have an active and stimulating effect, which in certain circumstances can be exciting. Cold colours have a passive effect – claming and spiritual. Green causes nervous tension. The effects produced by colour also depend on brightness and location.

           Warm and bright colours viewed overhead have a spiritually stimulating effect; viewed from the side, a warming, drawing closer effect; and, seen below, a lightening, elevating effect.

           Warm and dark colours viewed above are enclosing or dignified; seen from the side, embracing; and, seen below, suggest safe to grip and to tread on.

           Cold and bright colours above brighten things up and are relaxing; from the side they seem to lead away; and, seen below, look smooth and stimulating for walking on.

Cold and dark colours are threatening when above; cold and sad from the side; and burdensome, dragging down, when below.

           White is the colour of total purity, cleanliness and order. White plays a leading role in the colour design of rooms, breaking up and neutralizing other groups of colours, and thereby creates an invigorating brightness. As the colour of order, white is used as the characteristic surface for warehouses and storage places, for road lines and traffic markings.

1. Goethe’s natural colour circle: red blue yellow triangle ae basic colors (from which all colours can be mixed): green-orange-violet triangle shows colour mixtures of the first.


2. Bright and dark colours and their effect on humans.

3. Light and heavy colours (not the same as bright and dark colours [Fig.2]; create a ‘heavy’ feeling.

4. The colour circle’s twelve segments

5. Dark colours make a room heavy: rooms seem to be lower, if ceilings are heavily coloured

6. Bright colours give a lift: rooms seem higher with emphasis on walls and light ceilings

7. Long rooms seem shorter if end cross walls stand out heavily

8. White as a dominant colour, e.g. in laboratories, factories etc.

9. Dark elements in front of a bright wall give a powerful effect

10. Bright elements in front of a dark background seem lighter, particularly when over-dimensioned

Brightness of Surfaces
Values between theoretical white (100%) and absolute black (0 %)


White paper

84

 

Grass green

approx. 20

Chalky white

80

 

Limegreen, pastel

approx. 50

Citron yello

70

 

Silver grey

approx. 35

Ivory

approx. 70

 

Grey lime plaster

approx. 42

Cream

approx. 70

 

Dry concrete, grey

approx. 32

Gold yellow, pure

60

 

Plywood

approx. 38

Straw yellow

60

 

Yellow brick

approx. 32

Light ochre

60

 

Red brick

approx. 18

Pure chrome yellow

50

 

Darkclinker

10

Pure orange

25-30

 

Mide stone colour

35

Light brown

approx. 25

 

Asphalt, dry

approx. 20

Pure beige

approx. 25

 

Asphalt, wet

approx. 5

Mid beige

approx. 15

 

Oak, dark

approx. 18

Mid brown

approx. 40

 

Oak,light

approx. 33

Salmon pink

16

 

Walnut

approx. 18

Full scarlet

10

 

Light spruce

approx. 50

Deep violet

approx. 5

 

Aluminium foil

83

Light blue

40-50

 

Galvanized iron sheet

16

Deep sky blue

30

 

 

 

Turquoise blue, pure

15

 

 

 


Reinforced concrete staircase unit


Modular Systems

           International agreements on the planning and execution of building work and for the design and manufacture of building components and semi-finished products are incorporated into national standards. The modular system is a means of coordinating the dimensions applicable to building work.
The term ‘coordination’ is the key, indicating that the modular layout involves an arrangement of dimensions and the spatial coordination of structural components. Therefore, the standards deal with geometrical and dimensional requirements. The modular system develops a method of design and construction which uses a coordinate system as a means of planning and executing building projects. A coordinate system is always related to specific objects.
Geometric considerations
By means of the system of coordinates, buildings and components are arranged and their exact positions and sizes specified. The nominal dimensions of components as well as the dimensions of joints and inter corrections can thereby be derived. [Fig. 1 – 6, 13]
A coordinate system consists of planes at right angles to each other, spaced according to the coordinate measurements. Depending on the system, the planes can be different in size and in all three dimensions.
As a rule, components are arranged in one dimension between parallel coordinate planes so that they fill up the coordinate dimension, including the allowance allocated to the joints and also taking the tolerances into account. Hence a component can be specified in one dimension in terms of its size and position. This is referred to as boundary reference. [Fig. 7 to 12]
In other cases, it can be advantageous not to arrange a component between two planes, but rather to make the central axis coincide with one planes, but rather to make the central axis coincide with one plane of the coordinate system. The component is initially specified in one dimension with reference to its axis, but in terms of position only [Fig. 7 to 2]
A coordinate system can be divided into sub-systems for difference component groups, e.g. load-bearing structure, component demarcating space, etc. [Fig. 8]
It has been established that individual components need not be modularized, e.g. individual steps on stairways, windows, doors, etc. [Fig. 14]
For non-modular components which run along or across the whole building, a so-called ‘non-modular’ zone can be introduced, which divides the coordinate system into two sub systems. The assumption is that the dimension of the component in the non-modular zone is already known at the time of setting out the coordinate system, since the non-modular zone can only have completely specified dimensions. [Fig. 9]
Further possible arrangements of non-modular components are the so-called centre position and edge position within modular zones. [Fig. 10 to 11].